Background: Medication adherence in patients with diabetes is one of the main factors in diabetic patients care. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of educational intervention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on medication adherence in patients with diabetes referred to a diabetes center in Zarand, Iran, in 2014.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 100 patients with diabetes. The patients were divided into two groups (intervention and control). Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire including demographic variables, constructs of HBM, and the Morisky self-report questionnaire. The intervention group were divided into 5 groups including 8-12 patients, and according to the HBM, education was performed in four 60-90 minute sessions during one month. One month after the intervention, data were collected again and analyzed using descriptive statistics, linear regression, and Mann–Whitney U test.
Results: There was a significant difference in mean score of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived efficacy, and cues to action between intervention and control groups after the intervention. Medication adherence was significantly related to the level of education (P=0.006). Among constructs of HBM, perceived self-efficiency was the strongest predicting factor (P=0.03). After the intervention, the mean scores of perceived sensitivity (P<0.001), perceived severity (P<0.001), perceived benefits (P<0.001), perceived barriers (P<0.001), perceived self-efficiency (P<0.0001), cue to action (P<0.0001), and medication adherence (P<0.0001) increased significantly.
Conclusion: Education based on the HBM was effective in increasing adherence to medical instructions in patients with type 2 diabetes.